Jihadization Each of these phases is unique and has specific signatures… The NYPD shows its grasp of the realities of 4GW by not seeing the enemy as a structure or organization: Al-Qaeda has provided the inspiration for homegrown radicalization and terrorism; direct command and control by al-Qaeda has been the exception rather than the rule among the case studies reviewed in this study… Rather, it radicalization is a phenomenon that occurs because the individual is looking for an identity and a cause… Salafist Islam provides the identity and cause these young men are seeking -- and as a number of the case studies show, it has an appeal beyond ethnic boundaries.
There are various theories about the causes of military interventions; historical missionary, organizational format theory, custodian theory, and socio economic development theory.
Samuel Huntington and Morris Janowitz are considered the two premier authors on the theory of civil-military relations.
Other theories have developed either to fill in perceived shortcomings of the original concepts of Huntington and Janowitz or to provide alternatives to the original theories. Since Samuel Huntington and Morris Janowitz first introduced their theories on civil-military relations, many scholars have debated the issue.
Over the years, many alternative theories have been explored. A study of civil-military relations has been conducted on almost every nation in the world, some more than once. He gained wider prominence through his Clash of Civilizationsthesis of a post- Cold War new world order.
Morris Janowitz October 22, — November 7, was an American sociologist and professor who made major contributions to sociological theory, the study of prejudiceurban issues, and patriotism.
The military prefers to fund front groups so it looks like the U.S. had nothing to do with it. And keep in mind there WAS a U.S.-backed coup against Hugo Chavez, Maduro’s predecessor, in Naunihal Singh, Seizing Power: The Strategic Logic of Military Coups (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ). In “Parkinson Law,” Northcote Parkinson’s witty essay on the rules of bureaucracy, there is an interesting section on how to sway parliamentary votes. Just surround the. While the coups of and installed military regimes, the coup was motivated by increasing domestic tension under the rule of Colonel Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya (Akinterinwa, ). This tension stemmed partly from Ould Taya’s limited tolerance for democratization.
He was one of the founders of military sociology and made major contributions, along with Samuel P. Huntingtonto the establishment of contemporary civil-military relations. It is directed at the political system of the state or its agents involving the threat or actual use of Thesis on military coups to accomplish certain predetermined objectives which may be political, economic, social or even military.
Civil-Military Theory According to Richard Kohn, the requirements for civilian control in a democracy are the rule of law, a stable method for succession, workable practices for electing officials, and a government and governing process accepted as legitimate by elites and by the population as a whole.
Specifically this paper will focus on four theorists of civil-military relations, Huntington, Janowitz, Cohen, and Feaver. These theories move from the idea of what civil-military relations should be to how civil-military relations actually work.
Huntington believed that it was professionalization that was the most important element of the civil-military relationship and regarded expertise, responsibility, and corporate consciousness as indicators of this professional nature.
Huntington supposed an inherent correlation between professionalization and subordination, become increasingly informed and professional about their sphere of power would decrease the likelihood that the military would try to exercise control and influence through the means of the civilian government.
While this principle seems logical, clear mechanisms for instituting this form of control are not detailed, Huntington simply relies on an assumption that there is an inherent link between voluntary subordination and professionalism.
In other words, coups occur in an unstable society especially the developing countries. This school postulates that socio-political environment can lead to military intervention as the case of Algeria in where the military intervened because it feared the outcome of multi-party elections where an Islamic movement was poised to win and form the next government.
The military conscious of its personal interest opted to abort the democratic process and take over power itself. Similarly, political institutions like political parties, pressure groups, legislature and judiciary etc, are weak and therefore create the platform for the military to intervene.
Social divisions especially ethnic and class conflicts in the continent has also led to military intervention in the last two decades.
For example, Countries such as: From the above assertions one can say that, African regimes are vulnerable to crisis because they tend towards personal rule rather than legal-rational structures, consequently as soon as violence becomes the defining mechanism of regime change in Africa, the military then becomes a key player in politics.
The military is forced to intervene in the political process in the absence of other social groups with the ability to govern effectively, Huntington What accounts for the difference in the incidence of coups across countries?
Huntington asserted that the military would usually be welling to return to the ballacks after a dispute has been settling. Thus, the military only acts as the guardian to check the activities of corrupt civilian administrators and to ensure political stability.
Huntington stressed that the military will intervene when civilian government lacks legitimacy due to inadequate electoral and an ineffective executive Huntington Thus, the praetorian army will tend to replace weak and unstable political regimes. Finer argued that the most important cause of military intervention is the low or minimal political culture of the society concerned.
According to Huntington and Finer, the interpretation of military coups relates to the characteristics of the Nigerian army. Finer, more than Huntington stressed the role that corruption plays in intervention; in Nigeria some members of ineffective civilian leadership have been found to be corrupt and inept and to pursue self seeking ambition.
In contemporary society, however, the military is no longer content with enjoying proxy leadership. The military men see themselves as the custodian of the state and its constitution and this clearly is what has been obtained in Nigerian politics which led to the first Military coup in Nigeria, where the military felt the civilian regime was failing the nation and as an alternative and custodian they became involved in Nigerian politics.
In his work, The Professional Soldier, Janowitz looks toward the advent of nuclear weapons and the necessity of the military to change its behavior in relation to technological advances. During the Cold War, the two great powers the United States and the Soviet Union applied security strategies of deterrence with limited actual war.
Janowitz states that the lines between peace and war had been blurred in this new military concept, influencing the military to view itself in a new ideal as a constabulary force.
The National Security Council and Department of Defense allowed the military to have more spokes in the civilian government than ever before. These organizations allowed the military bureaucracy to have greater proximity to the most powerful decision-making institutions within the United States government, and effectively increasing their presence in affairs of the White House.
While this proximity has not resulted in overarching military exercises of control as it has in other military traditions, the U.
However, maintains that professionalization is the best means to establish civilian control. The underlying argument here is that, where public attachments to civilian institutions are strong and firm, military interventions in politics and civilian governments will be weak.Naunihal Singh, Seizing Power: The Strategic Logic of Military Coups (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ).
In “Parkinson Law,” Northcote Parkinson’s witty essay on the rules of bureaucracy, there is an interesting section on how to sway parliamentary votes. Just surround the.
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This is after some seven years of using their donation services. Military coups were a common occurrence all over the world especially in the's till 's (Ken and David, 8). This was the most common form of change in regime. Some of the military coups were successful while others were not.
The military prefers to fund front groups so it looks like the U.S. had nothing to do with it. And keep in mind there WAS a U.S.-backed coup against Hugo Chavez, Maduro’s predecessor, in The Origins of the American Military Coup of Charles J.
Dunlap Jr. This article was first published in the Winter issue of Parameters. The letter that follows takes us on a darkly imagined excursion into the future. A military coup has taken place in the United States—the year is.
It was the day of May 22nd of and Thailand’s military has finally announced it is taking control of the government and has suspended the constitution after months of political turmoil in Thailand.