The first triumvirate and the fall of the roman republic

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The first triumvirate and the fall of the roman republic

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Fall of the Republic[ edit ] The beginning of the end of the leaders who were not noble to the citizens and disobeyed the Republic which came when the brothers Gracchi challenged the traditional constitutional order[ clarification needed ] in the s and s BC.

Though members of the aristocracy themselves, they sought to parcel out public land to the dispossessed Italian peasant farmers. Other measures followed, but many senators The first triumvirate and the fall of the roman republic the Gracchi's policy and both brothers met violent deaths.

The next champion of the people was the great general Gaius Marius ; he departed from established practice by recruiting his soldiers not only from landed citizens but from landless citizens, including the growing urban proletariat.

How did the 1st Triumvirate contribute to the fall of the Roman Republic? Essay Sample

These were people who when the wars were over, looked to their commander for a more permanent reward in the shape of land of their own.

Thus the situation developed where commanders and their armies banded in pursuit of political objectives, the commanders seeking power and the soldiers rewards.

The temporary ascendancy achieved by Marius was eclipsed by that of Sulla in the 80s BC. Sulla marched on Rome after his command of the Roman invasion force that was to invade Pontus was transferred to Sulla's rival Marius.

Leaving Rome damaged and terrorized, Sulla retook command of the Eastern army and after placing loyal puppets to the consul he marched for the conquest of Pontus.

When Sulla returned to Rome, there was opposition to his rule by those loyal to Marius and his followers. Sulla, with the aid of a young Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassusquelled the political opposition and had himself made dictator of Rome.

Sulla was a staunch proponent of aristocratic privilege, and his short-lived monarchy saw the repeal of pro-popular legislation and condemnation, usually without trial, of thousands of his enemies to violent deaths and exile.

After Sulla's death, republican rule was more or less restored under Pompey the Great. Despite his popularity, he was faced with two astute political opponents: Rather than coming to blows, the three men reached a political accommodation now known as the First Triumvirate.

Caesar was awarded governor of two Gallic provinces what is now France. He embarked on a campaign of conquest, the Gallic Warwhich resulted in a huge accession of new territory and vast wealth not to mention an extremely battle hardened army after eight years of fighting the Gauls.

Crassus, jealous of Caesar's successes, embarked on a campaign in Parthia, where he was defeated and killed in the Battle of Carrhae. In 50 BC Caesar was recalled to Rome to disband his legions and was put on trial for his war crimes.

Caesar, not able to accept this insult after his fantastic conquest, crossed the Rubicon with his loyal Roman legions in 49 BC. Caesar was considered an enemy and traitor of Rome, and he was now matched against the Senate, led by Pompey the Great.

This led to a violent Civil War between Caesar and the Republic. The senators and Pompey were no match for Caesar and his veteran legions and this culminated in the Battle of Pharsaluswhere Caesar, although outnumbered, destroyed Pompey's legions. Pompey, who had fled to Egypt, was murdered and beheaded.

Finally, Caesar took supreme power and was appointed Dictator for life over the Roman Republic. Caesar's career was cut short by his assassination at Rome in 44 BC by a group of Senators including Marcus Junius Brutusthe descendant of the Brutus who expelled the Etruscan King four and half centuries before.

After Caesar's assassination, his friend and chief lieutenant, Marcus Antoniusseized the last will of Caesar and using it in an inflammatory speech against the murderers, incited the mob against them. The murderers panicked and fled to Greece.

In Caesar's will, his grandnephew Octavianuswho also was the adopted son of Caesar, was named as his political heir. Octavian returned from Apollonia where he and his friends Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Gaius Maecenas had been studying and helping in the gathering of the Macedonian legions for the planned invasion of Parthia and raised a small army from among Caesar's veterans.

Their combined strength gave the triumvirs absolute power. In 42 BC, they followed the assassins into Greece, and mostly because of the generalship of Antony, defeated them at the Battle of Philippi on 23 October. To pay for about forty legions that were engaged by the triumvirate for this purpose, proscriptions were declared against about senators and equites, including Cicerowho was killed at his villa.

After the victory, about 22 of the largest Italian cities suffered confiscations to provide land for the veterans. Antony received all the richer provinces in the east, namely AchaeaMacedonia and Epirus roughly modern GreeceBithyniaPontus and Asia roughly modern TurkeySyriaCyprus and Cyrenaica and he was very close to Ptolemaic Egyptthen the richest state of all.

Octavian on the other hand received the Roman provinces of the west: Italia modern ItalyGaul modern FranceGallia Belgica parts of modern Belgiumthe Netherlands and Luxembourgand Hispania modern Spain and Portugalthese territories were poorer but traditionally the better recruiting grounds; and Lepidus was given the minor province of Africa modern Tunisia to govern.

Henceforth, the contest for supreme power would be between Antony and Octavian.The First Triumvirate (abbreviated to TFT), 77 B.C. - Twilight of the Republic, and 58 B.C. - Caesar Imperator! each brings you into a different pivotal moment of the Roman Republic. Contents 1 History. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic - AMA You can start the fall of the Republic almost anywhere, really.

I've seen people date it back to the First Punic War, or even to Rome's first conquest.

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I'm just going to touch on the First Triumvirate before moving on to Augustus' military reforms. The Importance of the 1st Triumvirate in the Fall of the Roman Republic Summary: The First triumvirate was a very important factor in the fall of the Roman Republic because it proved that the senate had little control over Rome and set the precedent for sole .

Aug 21,  · Greek philosophy and rhetoric moved fully into Latin for the first time in the speeches, letters and dialogues of Cicero ( B.C.), the greatest orator of the late Roman Republic.

the first triumvirate of rome julius caesar marcus licinius crassus gnaeus pompey magnus and the fall of the Nov GMT The Roman Republic - 1st.

The first triumvirate and the fall of the roman republic

What type of problems did the Roman Republic face by B.C.E.? What were the causes of the troubles faced by Roman farmers? What solution did Tiberius Gracchus propose? Identify the members of the First Triumvirate. How did Julius Caesar take power in Rome?

What were some of Caesar's reforms?

Was the Fall of the Roman Republic inevitable Essay – Free Papers and Essays Examples