The american period of colonization

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian. Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional artsfolk literaturefolklorearchaeologyand other sources.

The american period of colonization

Norse colonization of the Americas Voyages of the Vikings to America. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence.

In the Treaty of Tordesillasratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil.

As a result, by the midth century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North Americain addition to its earlier Caribbean territories.

Other European nations soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas. England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these failed. England and France succeeded in establishing permanent colonies in the following century, along with the Dutch Republic.

The american period of colonization of these were on Caribbean islands, which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease, while others were in eastern North America, which had not been colonized by Spain north of Florida.

In the 18th century, Denmark—Norway revived its former colonies in Greenlandwhile the Russian Empire gained a foothold in Alaska. Denmark-Norway would later make several claims in the Caribbean, starting in the s. As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce.

Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates. Early state-sponsored colonists[ edit ] Further information: Portugal in the Age of DiscoverySpanish colonization of the Americasand First European colonization wave 15th century—19th The american period of colonization The first phase of well-financed European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus —sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as " the Indies ".

Philippine Literature during the American Period - National Commission for Culture and the Arts

He was followed by other explorers such as John Cabotwho was sponsored by England and reached Newfoundland. Amerigo Vespucciworking for Portugal in voyages from toestablished that Columbus had reached a new set of continents.

Cartographers still use a Latinized version of his first name, America, for the two continents. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown.

Iberian Union These explorations were followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards, having just finished the Reconquista of Spain from Muslim rule, were the first to colonize the Americas, applying the same model of governing their European holdings to their territories of the New World.

As in the Iberian Peninsulathe inhabitants of Hispaniola were given new landmasters, while religious orders handled the local administration. Progressively the encomienda system, which granted tribute access to indigenous labor and taxation to European settlers, was set in place.

A relatively common misconception is that a small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided only by disease epidemics and their powerful caballeros.

In fact, recent archaeological excavations have suggested a vast Spanish-Indian alliance numbering in the hundreds of thousands. Two years later, Charles V signed the New Laws which replaced the Laws of Burgos of prohibiting slavery and the repartimientosbut also claiming as his own all the American lands and all of the indigenous people as his own subjects.

Painting depicting a Castas with his mixed-race daughter and his Mulatta wife by Miguel CabreraWhen in Maythe Pope Alexander VI issued the Inter caetera bull granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spainhe requested in exchange an evangelization of the people.

As slavery was prohibited between Christians, and could only be imposed in non-Christian prisoners of war or on men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the 16th century.

Inthe papal bull Sublimis Deus definitively recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Some claimed that a native who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless.

The process of Christianization was at first violent: To reward their troops, the Conquistadores often allotted Indian towns to their troops and officers. Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations—including the West Indieswhere the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands.

During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil. They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations. They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the chartered Virginia Company financed by wealthy Englishmen who exaggerated the economic potential of this new land.

The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold. The lack of food security leading to extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. To support the Colony, numerous supply missions were organized. Tobacco later became a cash crop, with the work of John Rolfe and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and the neighboring colony of Maryland.

During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region.The African-American Mosaic Colonization. Home | Learn More | Acknowledgments.

Colonization of The Philippines

And, although the early history of the society has been well presented in publications, the post- Civil War period has not been thoroughly examined.

Liberia; Personal Stories and ACS New Directions;. Subdivisions of Native American History - the Pre-European Period Archaeologists divide North America's past into a number of time periods, both to emphasize features share by cultures at one time as well as highlight their differences from cultures of other times.

Philippine-American War ( - ) In Feb., , Aguinaldo led a new revolt, this time against U.S. rule. Defeated on the battlefield, the Filipinos turned to guerrilla warfare, and their defeat became a mammoth project for the United States— Thus began the Philippine-American War, one that cost far more money and took far more lives than the Spanish-American War.

American Colonization Period in the Philippines () 1. (The American Period) 2. “The Philippines are ours not to exploit, but to develop, civilize, educate, and to train in the science of self-government” WILLIAM MCKINLEY.

American colonial history belongs to what scholars call the early modern period. As such, it is part of a bridge between markedly different eras in the history of the western world.

The american period of colonization

On its far side lies the long stretch we call the Middle Ages (or the "medieval period"), on its near one the rise of. The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.

As part of the colonization process, The Colonial Period of American History.

American Literature/Colonial Period (s) - Wikibooks, open books for an open world