Bilbo declines, reluctant to leave the safety and comfort of his hobbit-hole. The next day, he is visited by dwarves who believe Bilbo can be of use to them in their journey to the Lonely Mountain to reclaim their ancestral treasure, now in the possession of Smaug the dragon. Bilbo realizes that Gandalf had represented him to the dwarves as a burglar.
Stoessinger New York, Bedford St. Stoessinger seeks to understand warfare in the twentieth-century. Black argues, however, that to approach the question of why wars happen by emphasizing twentieth-century--and even nineteenth- century--conflicts, "limits the basis for theoretical and general reflections" and truncates the search for continuities and changes from the past He concludes that the single most important precipitating factor in the outbreak of war is misperception.
Stoessinger notes that, regardless of personality, most leaders on the brink of war expect victory after a brief, decisive campaign. This "recurring optimism," which assumes a "powerful emotional momentum of its own," is a cause of war in its own right Blinded by hubris, war lovers feel invincible and underestimate their adversaries.
Although he includes Saddam Hussein and Slobodan Milosevic in this group, it is apparent that Stoessinger developed the war lover concept for Adolf Hitler. To some extent, this flaw is a natural consequence of providing background information [End Page ] about each war to readers unfamiliar with the basic history of these conflicts.
However, by choosing case studies that span decades--especially Vietnam and the Arab--Israeli and Indo-Pakistani conflicts--he complicates his ability to isolate the variables central to his argument. Nonetheless, as its many editions prove, the book is an extremely useful introductory text.
In the trade-off between narrative and analytical frameworks, Black would side with Stoessinger. As such, he has no use for the models of political science, which, to him, are "of debatable value" Instead, he argues for archival research, because it allows scholars to "glimpse the hesitations of the past, the choice between possible steps whose impact could not be assessed" Although these archives are "exceedingly bulky" and offer "fragmentary and peripheral" reflections, they focus on the most important source for understanding the causes of war, namely, diplomats and political actors; "it was their job and their interest You are not currently authenticated.
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The particular focus of each of the case studies turns upon the personalities of political and military leaders. Stoessinger emphasises that people go to war or precipitate wars.
War is not some faceless entity that merely unfolds in some inexplicable way. Gandalf reappears. The Battle of Five Armies ensues — dwarves, men, and elves fighting against Goblins and Wargs.
After the battle, Bilbo is taken to see Thorin, who is dying.
He is buried with Orcrist and the Arkenstone; his inheritance, the hoard, is divided. Bilbo leaves with Gandalf, Elvenking, and Beorn to go back to the hobbit-lands.
Thomas Bruscino’s A Nation Forged In War Summer summary of key statistics discussed in the book about the nation’s diversity is warranted. Prior to WWII, more than 25 percent of the nation’s population, A key point was that many veterans did not go back to their ethnic neighborhoods or farm communities.
Instead, they. Study Why Nations Go to War discussion and chapter questions and find Why Nations Go to War study guide questions and answers. Book Review Why Nations Go to War Why Wars Happen Why Nations Go to War.
By John G. Stoessinger decisive war is Stoessinger's concept of the "war lover," a leader "who launches aggressive war against another nation and will do so again and again until he is brought down" ().
Black notes three major gaps in the existing literature on.