The most important food crop grown in the tropical climates is Yam. The Yam is the chief source of calories for the population in tropical and sub-tropical regions. There many nutrients, proteins and micronutrients in it. The Yams have multiple species, around species approximately.
Battery cages Chickens transported in a truck. Animal welfare groups have frequently criticized the poultry industry for engaging in practices which they believe to be inhumane.
Many animal rights advocates object to killing chickens for food, the " factory farm conditions " under which they are raised, methods of transport, and slaughter. Compassion Over Killing and other groups have repeatedly conducted undercover investigations at chicken farms and slaughterhouses which they allege confirm their claims of cruelty.
Concerns have been raised that companies growing single varieties of birds for eggs or meat are increasing their susceptibility to disease. Rough handling, crowded transport during various weather conditions and the failure of existing stunning systems to render the birds unconscious before slaughter, have also been cited as welfare concerns.
A common practice among hatcheries for egg-laying hens is the culling of newly hatched male chicks since they do not lay eggs and do not grow fast enough to be profitable for meat.
There are plans to more ethically destroy the eggs before the chicks are hatched by "in-ovo" sex determination. These methods are not considered very humane. More human methods are low atmospheric pressure stunning and inert gas asphyxiation.
Debeaking Laying hens are routinely beak-trimmed at 1 day of age to reduce the damaging effects of aggression, feather pecking and cannibalism. Scientific studies see below have shown that beak trimming is likely to cause both acute and chronic pain. The beak is a complex, functional organ with an extensive nervous supply including nociceptors that sense pain and noxious stimuli.
Behavioural evidence of pain after beak trimming in layer hen chicks has been based on the observed reduction in pecking behavior, reduced activity and social behavior, and increased sleep duration.
Following beak trimming of older or adult hens, the nociceptors in the beak stump show abnormal patterns of neural discharge, which indicate acute pain.
If beak trimming is severe because of improper procedure or done in older birds, the neuromas will persist which suggests that beak trimmed older birds experience chronic painalthough this has been debated. Through testing, it was discovered that chickens who were fed a variety of vitamin B12 manufactured with the residue of a certain antibiotic grew 50 percent faster than those chickens who were fed B12 manufactured from a different source.
Upon this discovery, farmers transitioned from expensive animal proteins to comparatively inexpensive antibiotics and B Chickens were now reaching their market weight at a much faster rate and at a lower cost.
With a growing population and greater demand on the farmers, antibiotics appeared to be an ideal and cost-effective way to increase the output of poultry. Since this discovery, antibiotics have been routinely used in poultry production, but more recently have been the topic of debate secondary to the fear of bacterial antibiotic resistance.
As ofover 70 percent of FDA approved antibiotics are utilized in modern, high production poultry farms to prevent, control, and treat disease. More specifically inthe FDA speculated the most significant public health threat in regard to antimicrobial use in animals is the exposure of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to humans.
In poultry husbandry, the practice of using medically important antibiotics can select for resistant strains of bacteria, which are then transferred to consumers through poultry meat and eggs.
For the 48 million individuals affected, antibiotics play a critical role in thwarting mortality rates. This, along with penicillinis one of the first families of antibiotics utilized in the broiler industry. If this first-line treatment is not successful, a stronger class of antibiotics is typically used, however, there is a limitation on how many classes are available, as well as which medications are available on hospital formularies.
There is also more drug toxicity affiliated with second and third line antibiotic options. This is one example why it is critical to keep as many first-line antibiotic options available for human use.
On average, treatment for non-resistant bacteria is administered For example, of the two million people affected by resistant infections a year, 23, will die.
Approved uses included production growth enhancementtreatment, control, or prevention of animal disease. Antibiotics were also available for purchase over the counter at that time. Conclusion from these studies indicated no sufficient evidence to ban these antibiotics.Do you also searching for the ways to establish your own business and want to learn that How To Start Cattle Farming In Pakistan as Rising of cattle for various purposes is included in .
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The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-industries everywhere in the world. This can be accredited to an increasing demand for poultry meat and egg products. Poultry produced in Pakistan is being developed through two management systems i.e commercial farming and rural poultry farming.
The commercial poultry farming sector is a classic example of private sector enterprise. Mercy’s poultry farm is also climate-smart and makes sustainable use of resources. Poultry is recognized for being among the "greenest" meats, using up less resources and emitting less greenhouse gases than larger livestock.