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GENERAL 1a By "augmenting human intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.
Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: And by "complex situations" we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers—whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years.
We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human "feel for a situation" usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids.
Augmenting man's intellect, in the sense defined above, would warrant full pursuit by an enlightened society if there could be shown a reasonable approach and some plausible benefits. These "means" can include many things—all of which appear to be but Human moment of means developed and used in the past to help man apply his native sensory, mental, and motor capabilities—and we consider the whole system of a human and his augmentation means as a proper field of search for practical possibilities.
It is a very important system to our society, and like most systems its performance can best be improved by considering the whole as a set of interacting components rather than by considering the components in isolation.
Before a research program can be designed to pursue such an approach intelligently, so that practical benefits might be derived within a reasonable time while also producing results of longrange significance, a conceptual framework must be searched out—a framework that provides orientation as to the important factors of the system, the relationships among these factors, the types of change among the system factors that offer likely improvements in performance, and the sort of research goals and methodology that seem promising.
Section II contains the essence of this framework as derived from several different ways of looking at the system made up of a human and his intellect-augmentation means. Consequently, Section III is intended to present some definite images that illustrate meaningful possibilities deriveable from the conceptual framework presented in Section II —and in a rather marked deviation from ordinary technical writing, a good portion of Section III presents these images in a fiction-dialogue style as a mechanism for transmitting a feeling for the richness and promise of the possibilities in one region of the improvement space" that is roughly mapped in Section II.
If it serves its purpose well enough, Section III will provide a context within which the reader can go back and finish Section II with less effort. This strategy evolved directly from the concepts presented in Sections II and III ; one of its important precepts is to pursue the quickest gains first, and use the increased intellectual effectiveness thus derived to help pursue successive gains.
We see the quickest gains emerging from 1 giving the human the minute-by-minute services of a digital computer equipped with computer-driven cathode-ray-tube display, and 2 developing the new methods of thinking and working that allow the human to capitalize upon the computer's help.
By this same strategy, we recommend that an initial research effort develop a prototype system of this sort aimed at increasing human effectiveness in the task of computer programming. This illustrative example is not to be considered a description of the actual system that will emerge from the program.
It is given only to show the general direction of the work, and is clothed in fiction only to make it easier to visualize. He sits at a working station that has a visual display screen some three feet on a side; this is his working surface, and is controlled by a computer his "clerk" with which he can communicate by means of a small keyboard and various other devices.
He has already dreamed up several basic layouts and structural forms, and is trying them out on the screen. The surveying data for the layout he is working on now have already been entered, and he has just coaxed the clerk to show him a perspective view of the steep hillside building site with the roadway above, symbolic representations of the various trees that are to remain on the lot, and the service tie points for the different utilities.
The view occupies the left two-thirds of the screen. With a "pointer," he indicates two points of interest, moves his left hand rapidly over the keyboard, and the distance and elevation between the points indicated appear on the right-hand third of the screen.
Gradually the screen begins to show the work he is doing—a neat excavation appears in the hillside revises itself slightly, and revises itself again. After a moment, the architect changes the scene on the screen to an overhead plan view of the site, still showing the excavation.
A few minutes of study, and he enters on the keyboard a list of items, checking each one as it appears on the screen, to be studied later.We have reviewed the physical evidence for matter's connection to spacetime and the universe (see: "Nature's Fractal Pathway").We found multiple linkages between spacetime and matter, of which the most familiar are light, time, inertia, and gravitation.
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By "augmenting human intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.