Theories of Career Development This is the sixth article in a series of articles that will discuss the literature on the predominant career theories; history of and theory behind interest inventories; a discussion of the prominent interest inventories; the best use of interest inventories in the career development process; conceptual additions applicable to the study of interest inventories; literature that has focused on career indecision in adolescents; and educational interventions with additional focus placed on middle schools.
Theories explaining career behavior provide the psychologist with a conceptual map and describe the purposes for which career counseling, career education, and other career interventions should be implemented. It has led to the development of assessment instruments, as well as to the study of individual job requirements.
This theory focuses on individual traits but does not account for changes in values, interest, skills, achievement, and personality over the course of a lifetime.
The second period, called tentative, is divided into four substages interest, capacity, values, and transition and lasts from ages II to As changing work goals occur, a person will reassess how to improve it with the work environment.
The first, growth, occurs from birth to ages 14 or 15 and is characterized by the development of attitudes, interests, needs, and aptitudes associated with self-concept. Roe classifies occupations into two major categories: Individuals choose careers that satisfy their preferred personal orientations.
Holland and his colleagues have developed a number of instruments e. It is predicted that the better the match, the better the congruence, satisfaction, and persistence Holland, It also incorporates the more recent ideas from self-efficacy theory Bandura, and cognitive-behavioral theory Beck, ; Ellis, This theory incorporates many factors, each of which has a different impact on the person in his or her career decision making.
First, genetic endowment may expand or limit options for each individual. Learning experiences include acquiring or failing to acquire work habits and problem-solving skills.
That is, people compare their own performance, skills, and abilities with some standard and draw conclusions about their competence and worth. For example, a girl may not believe that she could be capable in math, and so she avoids math-related activities and career possibilities.
In summary, Krumboltz sees career development as unique for the individual and believes that most of the influences on career development and career choice e. One unique feature of her theory is that the range of aspirations narrows according to sex type and prestige during self-concept development.
Also, a person may compromise by settling for less compatible but more accessible career choices. In general, persons are less willing to compromise in job level and sex type because these factors are closely associated with self-concept.
Osipow identified common themes among those theories: These include the influence of life roles e. It must be noted, however, that all-encompassing theories are likely to pose barriers to research and practice because of the increased number of constructs and the complex network of interrelationships among them.
Read More About Career Development:Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology..
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by . There are many ways to develop theories of career development. Mainly the ideas result from personal experience including but not limited to sociological, economic, family life and environmental conditions.
Aug 06, · Super’s () theory of career development is a “loosely unified set of theories dealing with specific aspects of career development, taken from developmental, differential, social, personality, and phenomenological psychology and held together by self-concept and learning theory.
"Everybody's business is nobody's business."-- Russell Hardin, Collective Choice, The social phenomena discussed in this series of essays all center around the problem of individuals in groups faced with the choice of doing what is best for themselves or what is best for the group.
Instances of the phenomena are called by many different names: . Career Development Theories Overview behavior at a particular stage of career development Happenstance John Krumboltz Type: Social learning theory of career . IDS ) Theories of Career Development Fall Tuesdays pp Smullin Goals: This course has a dual purpose: to engage students in four prominent career theories and one learning theory; and to give you the experience of applying those theories to .