See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. One task required children to identify photographs of facial expressions of emotion. A second task required children to match facial expressions to an emotional situation. Internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children had difficulty identifying facial expressions of emotion.
This mixed methods study consisted of a qualitative case study of four children adopted from China and a quantitative investigation into IF using a sample of 92 adoptive parents with Chinese adoptees. This study reinforced the stance that IF should be treated as a distinct construct from attachment.
Researchers and professional counselors can benefit from the results of this study to better serve Chinese adoptive families. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, A majority of Chinese adoptees were under 3 years old at the time of adoption U. Department of State, IF has been consistently identified in post-institutionalized children Bruce et al.
The distinction between Chinese adoptees and their research counterparts entails a closer look at this population. Investigation into IF in children adopted from China became important, as the majority of them had experienced pre-adoption institutionalization in China.
Consistent with earlier findings about post-institutionalized children Bruce et al. IF does not fall into the traditional sense of being friendly, which is associated with a positive human trait; instead, it is deemed behaviorally inappropriate when children actively approach strangers, without a reasonable assessment of whether or not it is safe to do so Bruce et al.
Post-institutionalized children with IF tend to approach, make personal comments to, and initiate physical contact with strangers, and children with a high level of IF are often willing to leave locations with strangers Bruce et al. A few children, from ages 4 to 8, presented indiscriminate affection toward adults.
In Bruce et al. Attachment Theorists have examined the relationship between IF and attachment Bowlby, ; Sabbagh, The first two to three years are the most critical period for children to develop relationships with caregivers and to develop the aforementioned behavioral systems Bowlby, Although many securely attached children displayed IF behaviors, their unattached counterparts demonstrated a higher likelihood of being overfriendly Bowlby, Evolution of Diagnostic Criteria In addition to the heated dispute on whether or not IF is related to attachment patterns, the clinical perspective on IF has been evolving.
Hence, IF was separated from reactive attachment disorder, where it had been categorized.
The mixed findings on potential contributors to IF and the lack of in-depth qualitative input on IF reinforce the need to address IF in children adopted from China, which has rarely been discussed in counseling journals. Prevalence of IF in Chinese adoptees in the United States remains unknown, and no study was found exploring the experiences of children with IF.
The purpose of this study was to better understand IF in children adopted from China by U. The authors conducted a case study on four Chinese adoptees through two in-depth semi-structured interviews with two U.
To ensure the robustness of this study, the authors conducted a follow-up quantitative investigation into IF using a sample of 92 adoptive parents with children adopted from China.
This study addressed three research questions—RQ1: How do parents perceive IF in children adopted from China? What are some potential factors that are associated with IF? Method Participants Participants for qualitative and quantitative investigations were drawn from U.
Participants for the qualitative case study did not participate in the quantitative stage of investigation.
The same datasets have been investigated with different emphases, by one earlier submitted manuscript investigating child-parent attachment Liu, Research questions for this study were distinctly independent from previous studies. Participants were recruited based on the following criteria: Amy and Tina each adopted two children from China.
Parents, instead of the children, were selected as the participants, as all of the four children were under 6 years old and had limited ability in comprehending and articulating the phenomenon.
Both participants were married and had tried to have biological children. Natural conception was not a possibility, so adoption became the alternative to fulfill the desire for parenthood.
Amy was in her late 40s at the time of the interview.Objective. To assess convergence among three different measures of indiscriminate behavior and to assess the relationship of indiscriminate behavior to having an attachment figure and to aggressive behavior among young children living in a Romanian institution.
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It is a companion piece to an earlier article that described behavior issues and compared the international adoptees to a group of children adopted through the public child welfare system using a cross-sectional approach.
An Examination of the Attachment Security and Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Children Adopted From Romanian Orphanages PAGES 2.
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